# What Are Digital Integrated Circuits And Its Types

Published on October 10, 2019 , Last modified on August 2, 2024
by Hommer Zhao

Nearly all electronic appliances that we use day-to-day, such as laptops, mobile phones, refrigerators, televisions, and computers, are all manufactured with complex or simple circuits. Electronic circuits that we use consist of several electronic and electric components that have connections with each other. Such links are achieved by connecting wires to make the flow of electrical current to capacitors, resistors, transistors, diodes, inductors, diodes, etc. Circuits are classifiable into several types based on specific criteria such as connections, manufacturing process, size, and signal use. This article focuses on the signal used in a circuit and further narrows down the topic to matters concerning digital integrated circuits and their types.

## What is a Digital Integrated Circuit?

So, what is a digital integrated circuit? In short, digital integrated circuits do represent or stand for the practical sides of digital electronics. Digital electronic circuits hold/handle strategic or discrete signals such as 0 and 1. These two different states (logic 0 and logic 1) are low (logic 0) and high (logic 1). Digital integrated circuits employ digital multiplexers, counters, logic gates, and flip-flops, among others.

In designed to accept a specific absolute voltage value (e.g., “true or false” logic operation) manner of designing digital electronic circuits. For instance, digital electronic circuits use two states, known as binary circuits. These binary circuits come with binary quantities of “off” and “on” that represent 1 (right) and 0 (false). Unlike other courses, digital electronic circuits are economical and easy to manufacture or design.

Digital integrated circuits work at only a few states or defined levels as opposed to a wide range of signals.

Digital integrated devices find use in a vast number of electronic devices, modems, computer networks, frequency networks, and computers.

In short, some of the standard fundamental blocks of digital integrated circuits are logic gates. Unlike other types of courses or channels, digital integrated circuits only operate at a few defined levels of signal amplitudes.

## Digital Integrated Circuit Series

When it comes to digital electronic circuits, a family refers to devices constructed using a combination of several automatic gates. A family consists of its individual or stand-alone logic levels and supply voltage power. Of importance to note is that different series of digital integrated circuits have their distinct advantages and disadvantages. Also, within every family, some voltage ranges may either be low or high. There exists a 7400-series and 4000-series of integrated circuits.

7 series include the following:

• 7400
• 7402
• 7404
• 7408
• 7432
• 7488

Types of 4 include:

• 4001
• 4009
• 4011
• 4030
• 4071
• 4077
• 4081

## Examples of Integrated Circuit Series

Below is a list of digital integrated circuit series/families:

### •  Diode Logic

When it comes to Diode Logic, the implementation of the entire logic is done with the use of diodes and resistors. In the DL or logic diode, a diode or the primary purpose is to perform “and” our “or” operator.

### •  Resistor-Transistor Logic

Regarding the resistor-transistor thesis (RTL), the implementation of the entire logic is achieved using resistors and transistors. Resistors’ electronics are not expensive, like the rest, and are too simple to design. The only drawback is that RTLs draw a significant amount of power.

### •  Diode-Transistor Logic

When it comes to Diode-transistor logic (DTL), the implementation of the entire logic is through transistors and diodes. DTL has a couple of advantages over other resistor-transistor logic and diode logic. For instance, its diodes can efficiently perform OR and AND operations with ease. Another benefit associated with DTL is the fact that its OR operation is achievable with the use of diodes as opposed to resistors.

### •  Transistor-Transistor Logic

TTL or transistor-transistor logic has got it’s logic gates made around transistors. The transistor-transistor thesis employs the use of bipolar transistors and comes with different versions. The versions include Schottky TTL, High-speed TTL, Low power TTL, and Standard TTL. Transistor-transistor logic is one of the fastest available bi-polar circuits available currently.

### •  Emitter Coupled Logic

Here, the transistors do not go into deep saturation, meaning that there are no storage delays. Transistor-transistor logic finds use in applications that concern high-speed movement.

### •  Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Logic

Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Logic (CMOS) is well known for its low consumption of power coupled with high fan-out. CMOS finds use in several applications and microprocessor technologies. CMOS is also one of the most reliable logic families.

## How Digital Integrated Circuits Work

Digital integrated circuits are small electronic components that brought about dramatic or unforgettable technologies in the history of man. Also known as a semiconductor chip, the digital integrated circuit has significantly unleashed change compared to the industrial revolution. But how do digital integrated circuits work? Digital integrated circuits consist of a combination of transistors, microprocessors, and diodes. They all play their different roles, such as storing voltage, controlling the flow of current, and providing memory to the entire system. These components/devices work together in a digital integrated circuit to undertake different operations for effective operation or functionality.

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## How Do You Make Your Digital Integrated Circuit With Ease?

Making your digital circuit is not a hard or rather tricky process, as you may imagine. The process/steps of producing a digital integrated circuit begin with a substantially single crystal of silicon shaped as reliable pipes. These pipes are also known as wafers. You will need to mark the biscuits into several identical rectangular or square areas.

After that, you will have to create components on every chip by doping some areas of the surface. Doping is achieved using a variety of processes. One of the most common methods is known as sputtering. The process of sputtering involves the firing of ions of the doping material/content into the silicon wafer.

There is another process known as vapor deposition. Vapor deposition consists of the introduction of doping material in the form of gas and after that, letting it condense for the impurity atoms to form a thin film. The creation of the film occurs at the silicon wafers’ surface.

## Digital Integrated Circuits Directly Associated with PCBA

A Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is a board that connects electronic components by use of pads, conductive traces, and other features. They can be double-sided, single-sided, or multi-layer. On the other hand, a PCBA (Printed Circuit Board Assembly) is a board presented after the entire parts and components get soldered and rightfully installed. A PCBA consisting of its parts and components easily accomplishes the automatic function it’s designed to achieve.

Put in short, Printed Circuit Board Assembly) is board presented after the entire parts and components get soldered and rightfully installed. A PCBA or Printed Circuit Board Assembly is a board that comes out after the printing and mounting of components. These components include capacitors, transformers, and resistors, to mention but a few. During the process of assembly, an empty PCB board gets populated or stuffed with electronic components with the sole purpose of creating a functioning/working Printed Circuit Board Assembly) is board presented after the entire parts and components get soldered and rightfully installed. A PCBA

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) find use in almost all electronic devices. However, a majority of PCBs are directly associated with the assembly of digital integrated circuits. Digital integrated circuits interconnect devices/components such as resistors, transistors, inductors, and capacitors.

## Some Common Problems, Precautions

There are some common problems/issues that surround digital integrated circuits. First, the methodology used to design them is resistor-transistor logic (RTL), which dates back to the 1980s. This technology is past its prime. Secondly, a matter to do with power is another issue. A lot of people do not understand questions concerning power so well.

Digital integrated circuits have numerous connections. If all these connections have the same voltage, no potential damage may occur. However, in case one of the links has a different voltage/energy from the rest, some damage may occur. It is advisable to be very cautious regarding questions with voltage. However, you can protect/shield them by wrapping the pins together in aluminum foil or connecting them to become a single piece.

## Summary

Digital integrated circuits are a breakthrough in the difficulties of our daily lives. They have marked the genesis of essential factors such as reliability and speed. A majority of modern devices, such as mobile phones and computers, need circuits to function. These circuits need millions and even thousands of components, and that’s where digital integrated circuits come in.

As technology continues to evolve, digital integrated circuits are becoming increasingly sophisticated. That’s the reason why mobile phones, laptops, and plenty of consumer electronics get better and cheaper by the day.

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Hommer Zhao
Hi, I'm Hommer Zhao, the founder and Chief Editor at WellPCB. With extensive experience in the PCB industry, I oversee all content to ensure it meets the highest standards of accuracy and insight. We proudly serve over 4,000 customers globally. For inquiries or more information, don't hesitate to reach out. Your satisfaction is my top priority!