A printed circuit board (PCB) is the basis of all electronic components. A PCB ensures an excellent electrical connection by featuring pre-designed layers of copper tracks. This article will explicitly explore how to build a circuit board from scratch.
What are the Different Ways to Make a Circuit Board?
Fig 1: Many Circuit Boards
Most circuit board makers use either of the following three methods.
- Applying iron on the glossy paper technique.
- Also, you can create the circuit by hand on a printed circuit board (PCB).
- Lastly, you can use the Laser cutting edge etching design process.
The latter laser etching process is synonymous with industrial PCB manufacturers.
Fig 2: PCB Design in an Electronics Factory
The PCB design procedure involves taking the schematic diagram of the circuit and imprinting it on a PCB layout. PCB layout software such as Autodesk Eagle or PCBWizard is handy for this procedure.
Below is a stepwise illustration of how to make a circuit board.
Step 1: Assemble the Tools and Materials
Fig 3: A DIY PCB
- Flat iron
- Photocopying machine or laser printer
- Mini drill
- Eye Goggles
- Latex Gloves
- A PCB board
- An etching solution, preferably Ferric Chloride (FeCl3)
- A marker- fine tip
- A piece of cloth
- Glossy paper
- Plastic straws/ plastic tweezers
Step 2: Design A Circuit Diagram
This step is essential if you don’t have a PCB layout. Alternatively, you may opt to write the simple circuit design on the board if you’re not planning to explore the printing method.
Besides, you’ll need good PCB board design software for an excellent PCB layout design. The Eagle Layout Editor will come in handy in this step. But if you’re not conversant with this software or looking for a simpler one, go for Microsoft PowerPoint.
Step 3: Draw Your Schematics
We’ll use KiCad for this procedure since it is free software that is easy to use, even for complex designs. You’ll need to install the software and select ‘Create New Project.’
Next, make the circuit diagram schematic and activate the Electrical Rules Checker (ERC). It’s handy in checking if there are errors in your schematic.
Step 4: Printing Your PCB Layout
Fig 4: PCB Layout
A laser Laser Printer/ photocopying machine will be handy rather than an Inkjet printer. Primarily, this is because the latter’s ink is water soluble. Hence, it will not transfer its imprint ink on the PCB board.
Again, for this step, use magazine paper or any glossy paper.
Step 5: Cut the Copper Plate for the Circuit Board
Fig 5: A DIY Printed Circuit Board on Tweezers
Here, cutting the copper board per your layout’s size would be best. You may use a hacksaw or a cutter for this task. Next, gently scrub the PCBs copper side using an abrasive sponge or steel wool to clean the photoresist layer and the oxide covering.
Besides, roughening the surface enables easy attachment of the image from the glossy paper.
Step 6: Transfer the PCB Print onto the Copper Plate
Fig 6: Unused Copper Plates for making Circuit Boards
You may use either of the following two techniques.
Iron on Glossy Paper technique
The method is best suited to complex circuits. Primarily it involves imposing the laser printer’s image on the board. Besides, ensure that you flip the paper’s top layer horizontally.
Next, place the circuit board’s copper surface on your printed board layout. Also, ensure the board perfectly aligns with the printed layout borders. A tape will be handy in providing the board and paper remain in the correct position.
Circuit by Hand on PC
Unlike the former method, this best suits simple circuits. In this case, the course will be the reference point from which you’ll make a tracing sketch on the copper plate via a pencil.
Then, after making a clear sketch, use a permanent marker to create a more precise board outline trace.
Step 7: Etch the Plate
Fig 7: Etching in FeCl3
It is a sensitive step; thus, you must be highly cautious. Here are the key steps and the respective precautions to undertake:
- Primarily, you should don rubber gloves and have a newspaper on the surface to prevent floor staining by the etching solution.
- Next, put three spoonfuls of ferric chloride power into a plastic box with water to make the FeCl3 etching solution.
- Now immerse the PCB into the ferric chloride solution to allow the etching process. The process will prompt the reaction between unmasked copper and FeCl3 to expel unwanted copper from the board. It should take about 30 minutes.
- Using pliers, remove the PCB from the solution and confirm that the unmasked area has undergone complete etching. If not, initiate further etching by dipping it into the solution until the process is entire.
Step 8: Cleaning, Disposal, and the Final Touches for the Circuit Board
The etching solution harms biodiversity; thus, you must discard it cautiously. For instance, don’t pour it into water sources as it’s toxic to water animals like fish. Also, spewing it into the sink is equally harmful as it could cause drain pipe damage.
Hence, dilute it first with water before discarding it. Also, soak cotton wool with nail polish remover to clean the toner from the plate. It will aid in exposing the copper surface, and after cleaning, rinse and dry the surface with a clean piece of clothing. Next, trim the board to your desired final size, and using sandpaper, sand the edges to smoothen it.
Step 9: Drilling the Holes
Fig 8: Green PCB
Next, using a hole component, drill holes onto the PCB and solder the respective components to create integrated circuits. While drilling, ensure you start from the copper side, as it’ll guide you on the specific parts to drill.
Note that you can also make a green PCB that is common in most electronics. All you need is to smear your board with green solder-resistant paint.
Step 10: How to use a Soldering Iron on a Circuit Board？
Fig 9: Soldering Components on PCB
Here are the critical steps of soldering components onto the circuit board:
How to Build a Circuit Board: Mount the Electronic Component
First, place the component you want to solder by inserting its leads into the circuit board’s holes. Next, flip the circuit board and bend the tips to make a firm connection. This step is handy in preventing the component from falling off during soldering.
How to Build a Circuit Board: Heat the Solder
Switch on the soldering iron and tune it to a temperature of 400-degree Celsius. Next, simultaneously place the solder tip onto the copper pad and component lead for about 4 seconds. This step is handy in heating the pad and melting the information.
How to Build a Circuit Board: Apply Solder
While firmly pressing the soldering iron on the lead and copper pad, place the solder onto the joint. Ensure you don’t directly touch the solder with the soldering iron tip. When the common you’re making is hot enough, the solder will melt, and a strong connection will form.
Remove the Leads
- Allow the joint to cool naturally.
- Don’t hasten the cooling process by blowing air into the joint.
- Once it’s appropriately cooled, snip the excess lead to remain with a smooth joint.
Noteworthy, don’t apply too much solder to form a large ball connecting to the other joint.
Step 11: Test
Fig 10: Industrial PCB Testing
Connect the circuit board parts to a multimeter to detect connectivity issues. If present, a desoldering gun will be handy in rectifying the problems.
Now you’re fully enlightened about how to build a circuit board from scratch. Write to us in case you have a query, and we’ll promptly reach back to you.