Electronic circuit board technology is evolving for many years. An electronic circuit board connects the electronic components electrically and also supports them mechanically. However, a ruggedized board is a mandatory requirement for a marketable product that fulfills specific qualification standards. For a standardized product the electronics, industry has moved towards PCB. For its high reliability, low cost, good efficiency, easy availability. As well as manufacturing facilities. Although, the circuit boards were used in industrial and even defense applications till the early 1970s.
1.The electronic circuit board technology before
In the early days of electronics, the components were mounted over a board or sheet. Then the wire-wrapping technique is used to make connections between pins, such as shown in fig 1.
Fig 1:- Wire wrapping electronic circuit boards
Later on, the components were mounted, and the connections were made by connecting the pins by using a wire and soldering them to the pins of the element, such as shown in fig 2.
Fig 2:- Vero boards type electronic circuit boards
A printed electronic circuit board is available in many different material types. It can be manufactured under different standards. They also mechanically support the components. As well as electrically connect the pieces. The connectivity is, through thin sufficiently spaced copper tracks, pads and vias.
As well as improved significantly over the predecessors. They are produced by etching the thin layer of copper sheet glued over the fire retardant materials. Or specialized insulating materials.
2.The PCBs for low volume
The milling machine manufactures the PCBs for low volume and prototyping where the required copper tracks remain intact, whereas extra copper is removed. The components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, and ICs. They are mounted and soldered on the outer sides of PCB.
The thin copper connections or tracks may switch from one layer to another by vias or pads. In newer and advanced PCBs, the components like resistors may be made inside the copper connections. Or inner layers of the PCB. The higher the layers in an electronic circuit board, the denser the tracks and solderable components.
An electronic board is shown in fig 3.
Fig 3:- Printed circuit boards type electronic circuit boards.
The printed electronic circuit boards require design effort that lowers the manufacturing and assembly by automated machines. Manufacturing with PCBs intends to reduce cost and higher yield. When compared to other circuit production methods like wiring methods or varo-boarding. A PCB with the populated and soldered component is called a printed circuit board assembly or PCBA.