The PCB is one of the greatest inventions in history. And the history of PCB traces back to over 130 years.
Interestingly, the industrial machine has advanced throughout with adjustments and enhancements. As a result, it’s almost impossible to compare the first PCBs with modern designs.
But as the famous saying goes: “You need to know where it starts to know where it’s headed.” Hence, we’ll take you through where it all started, the idea behind the device, the inventors, and more.
Are you ready? Let’s get the ball rolling.
The History of PCBs
Albert Hanson, a German scientist, was one of the individuals that started a quest to create a more straightforward electrical pathway. No doubt, his invention didn’t look like the PCBs. But it paved the way for the device’s creation.
Albert filed a patent for a device in 1903 to enhance telephone exchange boards.
Indeed, the device was a bare circuit board that featured wires bonded to a flat surface with conductive pieces.
Albert’s circuit board had a through-hole construction with conductors but lacked modern precursors.
In 1927, Charles Ducas, an American inventor, took a bold step forward in the PCB world. And he started by printing wires directly on a board with a stencil. Then, he added ink to conduct electricity. The goal of the invention was to place an electronic path on an insulated surface. Interestingly, Ducas came up with a device that looked like a printed circuit board.
Charles Ducas drawing a PCB
Even though Ducas figured out the circuit board, he contemplated the possibility of having a multilayered circuit board by connecting many boards. Hence, it took another great mind to see Ducas’ ideas and bring them to light.
And the man that dotted the I’s and crossed the T’s was Paul Eisler. Hence, it’s no surprise that he gets a lot of credit for inventing the PCB.
But it all happened when he settled in England after leaving Austria. The Austrian Inventor had a background in the printing industry, so it helped birth the idea of printing electronic circuits on boards.
And his creation eased the labor-intensive practice of hand-soldering wires to your boards. Further, one of his PCBs had its first application in radio—which Americans and British found resourceful during World War II.
Evolution Timeline Of PCB
An American inventor, Charles Ducas, drew conductive materials on a wooden plane board. And it was a patent for his first circuit board design.
Paul Eisler, an Austrian inventor, created the first PCB. And it was helpful in a radio set.
Paul took a step further to patent a more advanced PCB design. And the design required etching the circuits against copper foil on a non-conductive substrate.
Britain and America joined forces to create proximity fuse in artillery shells, mines, and bombs during WWII.
There was an overall development of the PCB technology as the U.S Army released it to the public.
Transistors hit the electronics market. Consequently, it reduced the size of electronics. Hence, it was easier to add PCBs—which enhanced the reliability of electronics.
The 1950s – 1960s
PCBs advanced into boards (double-sided) with printing identification on one side and electrical components on the other. Also, PCB designs had zinc plates, coatings, and corrosion-resistant materials to avoid deterioration.
Electronic designs had silicon chips or integrated circuits. Hence, it became possible to have a single chip with tens of thousands of components. Consequently, there was a significant improvement in electronics’ reliability, power, and speed.
There was a mix-up between the printed circuit boards and polychlorinated biphenyl (an environmentally harmful chemical). And it’s because both of them had the PCB abbreviation at that time. As a result, there were community health concerns and public confusion.
Hence, the device’s scientists changed the name to PWB (printed wiring board) to reduce confusion. This name remained until the 1990s, when chemical PCBs phased out.
The 1970s – 1980s
To ease the solder application of copper circuits, solder masks were developed of thin polymer materials. And this helped to bridge adjacent courses and boost circuit density.
After a while, inventors developed a photo imageable polymer coating. With this, engineers could apply the layer directly to the circuits, desiccate, and modify by photo exposure. And this further enhanced circuit density. Hence, it became the PCB standard manufacturing method.
Surface Mount Technology (SMT) came into play as a new assembly technology. Initially, all PCB components featured wire lead. Hence, it was vital to solder the components into the PCB holes. And the holes took a lot of space that was useful for extra circuit routing.
Source: Wikimedia Commons
So, SMT components became the manufacturing standard. And engineers soldered the components to small pads on the PCB without using the holes. Over time, SMT components replaced through-hole parts and became the industry standard.
As a result, reliability, performance, and functional power increased. And there was a reduction in production costs.
There was a continuous reduction in PCB size due to CAM/CAD (computer-aided manufacturing and design) software prominence. Also, mechanical designs contributed to the automation of PCB design.
CAD/CAM structural design
Source: Wikimedia Commons
Further, it helps to ease increasingly complex designs with lighter and smaller parts. In addition, more minor connections permit fast-increasing PCB shrinking or miniaturization.
PCBs tick the boxes for increased complexity, compatibility, higher layer counts, and lightness. That said, the flexible circuit and multilayered PCB design permit increased operational functionality in electronic devices with smaller and cheaper PCBs.
Printed Circuit Boards Today
These days, there’s no confusion associated with PCBs. Because we have outlived the era of chemical PCBs, no doubt, in the industry, you can use the terms PWB (printed wire board) and printed circuit board interchangeably. But the more familiar word is printed circuit board.
The latest innovation that has hit PCB technology is the rigid-flex PCB. Interestingly, this technology combines a hardboard circuit with a rigid structure and complexity.
So, thanks to the combined layers, the rigid-flex PCBs are thinner, smaller, and can fit into small or unusually shaped products.
What Does the Future Hold For PCBs?
Due to recent technological advancements, engineers can print circuit boards with multi-step procedures like photolithographic and conventional vacuum deposition patterning.
Photolithographic process ℅ Gianluca Grenci
Sounds good, right? True, but it’s hard to ignore the snags that come with this level of technology. The PCBs are pricey, need a high processing temperature, and involve toxic waste.
3D printing on PCB
Source: Wikimedia Commons
Furthermore, research institutes have predicted the future of PCBs to be green. So, we should expect paper-printed circuit boards.
Also, the drive-by manufacturers to produce smaller electronic appliances will move PCB production design to smaller boards with higher capacities.
Plus, we should expect to see more 3D molded plastic boards, embedded components, integrated chips, and POP (package on package) becoming a thing.
These advancements are undoubtedly the forerunners that will keep the PCB industry constantly growing—as the years move.
WellPCB has been in the business of PCB fabrication for years. And we always deliver on our promise: providing quality PCBs in the industry. Plus, we use the latest PCB technology.
Furthermore, our rigid-flex PCBs can be complex and time-consuming to fabricate. But we handle all the flexible parts carefully. Then, we pass the printed circuit board through quality assurance testing and surpass industry standards.
In addition, we have brand new equipment and an overall production area of 10000 m2. Hence, we can deliver over 10000 varieties and 30000 m2 feet of 2-32 layer PCBs monthly.
So, do you need to get the best PCBs for your projects? Please feel free to contact us.